Search Engine

Shahid Maqbool

By Shahid Maqbool
On Apr 12, 2023

Search Engine

What is a Search Engine?

A search engine is a software system that helps users find information on the internet by searching for relevant web pages, documents, images, and other types of content.

Search engines use complex algorithms to analyze and index the content of billions of web pages, allowing them to provide users with relevant results when they enter a search query.

Some popular search engines include Google, Bing, Yahoo, and DuckDuckGo.

A brief history of search engines

The history of search engines can be traced back to the early days of the Internet in the 1990s. The first search engine was called Archie, which was developed in 1990 by Alan Emtage, a student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada.

Archie was a simple search engine that allowed users to find files on FTP servers by searching for specific keywords.

In 1993, another search engine called Gopher was developed at the University of Minnesota. Gopher was similar to Archie, but it allowed users to browse directories and find files on the internet more easily.

The first search engine that indexed and searched web pages was called World Wide Web Wanderer, which was developed by Matthew Gray in 1993. It was soon followed by other search engines such as Aliweb, Infoseek, and WebCrawler.

In 1996, two new search engines were launched that would change the internet forever: Google and Yahoo. Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University.

Yahoo was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo while they were graduate students at Stanford.

Google quickly became the most popular search engine due to its ability to provide more relevant search results and its simple and user-friendly interface.

Over the years, Google has continued to refine its search algorithms and introduce new features such as Google SERP Features, Google Images, Google News, and Google Maps.

Today, search engines are an integral part of the internet, and billions of people around the world use them every day to find information, products, and services. 

AI-Powered search engines and Google's dominance

Over the past two decades, Google has been the go-to search engine for everyday searches, product research, and staying up to date on the latest news.

As a dominant player in the market, it has been difficult to argue that any other search engine can serve better results than Google.

However, with the emergence of AI-powered chatbots such as ChatGPT and Bing's AI chatbot integration, Google's long-standing market dominance is being challenged.

Despite years of AI development, it remains uncertain whether Google can beat Bing to market with an AI chatbot.

While Bing may be the first major search engine to market with AI, Google's current market share gives it a considerable advantage in the industry. It will be interesting to see how these developments unfold in the next few years.

However, Google is getting ready to face off against ChatGPT by developing its very own AI-powered chatbot - BARD.

Types of web search engines

There are several types of web search engines, each with its own focus and methodology for indexing and ranking web pages.

Here are some of the most common types:

General search engines

These search engines, such as Google, Bing, Yahoo Search, DuckDuckGo, Yandex, and Baidu, are designed to index and rank web pages from all domains and topics.

They use complex algorithms to analyze the content of web pages and provide users with relevant search results.

Vertical search engines

These search engines, such as Yelp, TripAdvisor, and Zillow, are designed to search for specific types of content, such as reviews, travel information, or real estate listings. They typically provide more specialized and targeted results than general search engines.

Metasearch engines

These search engines, such as Dogpile and Metacrawler, search multiple search engines simultaneously and aggregate the results into one list. They provide a broader range of results than any single search engine.

Metasearch engines work by sending a user's query to multiple search engines and then collecting and displaying the results from those search engines.

The results are typically displayed in a list format, with each result showing the title, URL, and snippet of the web page.

People search engines

These search engines, such as Whitepages and Spokeo, are designed to search for information about people, such as their contact information, social media profiles, and public records.

Academic search engines

These search engines, such as Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic, are designed to search for academic research and scholarly articles. They provide access to academic publications and research from a variety of disciplines.

Image search engines

These search engines, such as Google Images and Bing Images, are designed to search for images on the web. They use algorithms to analyze the content of images and provide users with relevant search results.

Job search engines

These search engines, such as Indeed and LinkedIn, are designed to search for job listings and career opportunities.

They provide job seekers with a centralized location to search for employment opportunities across multiple industries and locations.

Religious search engines

Religious search engines are online portals that provide filtered search results based on religious guidelines for specific faith communities.

Examples include Islamic search engines like ImHalal (2011) and Halalgoogling (2013), religion-oriented search engines like Jewogle for Jewish users, and for Christian users.

These search engines aim to create a safe online environment for adherents of a particular faith, but progress has been hindered by factors such as a lack of investment and slow technology development in certain regions.

How does a search engine work?

A search engine works by using a complex algorithm to analyze and index the content of web pages and then retrieve relevant search results when you enter a search query.

Here are the basic steps involved in how a search engine works:


The search engine's software, also known as a spider or bot, starts by crawling the web and collecting data from web pages.

The bot follows links from one page to another, collecting data such as the content of the page, meta tag information, and any images or videos.


Once the bot has collected data from a web page, it is added to the search engine's index. The index is like a giant database of all the web pages the search engine has crawled, and it allows the search engine to quickly search and retrieve relevant results.


When you enter a search query, the search engine uses its algorithm to rank the web pages in its index based on how relevant they are to the query.

The ranking algorithm takes into account a variety of factors such as the relevance of keywords on the page, the authority of the website, the quality of the content, and the user's location and search history.

Displaying results

Finally, the search engine displays the most relevant search results on SERPs, with the highest-ranked results appearing at the top of the page. The user can then click on a result to visit the web page and find the information they were looking for.

Search engines use a variety of techniques to improve their accuracy and relevance, including machine learning algorithms, natural language processing, and user behavior analysis.

This allows them to continually refine their results and provide users with the best possible search experience.

How to access a search engine?

Accessing a search engine is easy and can be done in several ways. 

  • Using a web browser: Most search engines are accessed through a web browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Microsoft Edge. Simply open your preferred browser and type the URL of the search engine you want to use (e.g. into the address bar. Alternatively, you can search for the search engine by name using a search engine that you already have open.

  • Using a search bar: Many web browsers and websites have a search bar built-in that allows you to search directly from the browser or website. Simply type your search query into the search bar and “press enter” to see the search results. Some popular search bars include the Google search bar, the search bar on the Bing homepage, and the search bar in the top-right corner of the Firefox browser.

  • Using a mobile app: Many search engines also have mobile apps that can be downloaded and installed on smartphones and tablets. Simply search for the app in the app store and download it to your device. Once installed, you can use the app to search for information.

  • Using a voice assistant: Many voice assistants such as Google Assistant, and Siri, can perform web searches on your behalf. Simply activate your voice assistant and ask it to perform a search using your query. The voice assistant will then search for information and provide you with the results.

Do all search engines give the same results?

No, all search engines do not give the same results. While many search engines may have similar results for some queries, the ranking and order of search results can vary significantly between search engines.

This is because each search engine uses a different algorithm to analyze and index web pages, and they may use different factors to determine the relevance and authority of a page.

For example, Google's algorithm places a strong emphasis on the quality and relevance of the content on a page, as well as the number and quality of links pointing to the page.

Other search engines may place more emphasis on social signals, user engagement, or other factors.

Additionally, search engines may have different levels of coverage and indexing, meaning that they may not have the same web pages in their index.

Some search engines may specialize in certain types of content, such as images or videos, while others may have more comprehensive coverage of the web.

How do search engines make money?

Here is how search engines make money:

Pay-per-click (PPC) ads

Search engines, such as Google and Bing, allow advertisers to bid on specific keywords related to their products or services.

When a user searches for those keywords, the ads associated with those keywords are displayed at the top or bottom of the search results page.

Advertisers pay the search engine a fee each time a user clicks on their ad (hence the term "pay-per-click"). This is one of the most common ways search engines generate revenue.

User data

Search engines collect data about users' search queries, browsing behavior, location, and other relevant information. This data is used to create digital profiles of users, which can be used to serve targeted ads.

Advertisers are willing to pay a premium for targeted ads because they are more likely to be relevant to users, increasing the likelihood of users clicking on them.

Search engines may also use this data to gain insights into user behavior and preferences, which can be valuable for marketing research and analysis.

Contextual ads

In addition to PPC ads, search engines may also display contextual ads. These are ads that are relevant to a searcher’s query and appear on the search results page or on websites where ads are displayed.

For example, if a user searches for "best hiking shoes", they may see ads for hiking shoes displayed alongside the search results.

These ads are typically based on the keywords used in the search query and are intended to be relevant to the user's immediate needs.

Partnerships and collaborations

Search engines may enter into partnerships or collaborations with other companies. For example, a search engine may partner with an e-commerce platform, a travel agency, or a service provider to promote their products or services in search results.

The search engine may receive referral fees or commissions when users click on these promoted products or services and make a purchase or engage with the partner company, generating revenue for the search engine.

Premium services

Some search engines offer premium services that users can access for a fee. These services may include advanced search features, such as filtering options or customization, advanced analytics and insights for businesses, or specialized industry-specific tools.

Users who require these additional services may be willing to pay a subscription fee or a one-time fee, generating revenue for the search engine.

It's worth noting that the specific revenue generation strategies of search engines may vary depending on the search engine's business model and the terms and conditions they set for advertisers, partners, and users.

Top 10 search engines

Here are the top 10 search engines as of 2023:


Google search engine

Google is the most popular search engine, with a market share of over 90%. It uses complex algorithms to analyze and index web pages and provide users with relevant search results.


Bing search engine

Bing is a search engine owned by Microsoft and is the second-most popular search engine, with a market share of around 5%. It uses machine learning algorithms to provide personalized search results.

Yahoo Search

Yahoo search engine

Yahoo is a search engine owned by Verizon Media and has a market share of around 1%. It provides web search results as well as news, finance, and sports content.


Baidu search engine

Baidu is a Chinese search engine with a market share of around 1%. It is the most popular search engine in China and provides web search results as well as news, images, and videos.


Yandex search engine

Yandex is a Russian search engine with a market share of around 0.5%. It provides web search results as well as maps, news, and images.


DuckDuckGo search engine

DuckDuckGo is a privacy-focused search engine with a market share of around 0.5%. It does not track users or store personal information and provides anonymous search results.


Naver search engine

Naver is a South Korean search engine with a market share of around 0.5%. It provides web search results as well as news, maps, and images.


Ask search engine

Ask is a search engine owned by IAC and has a market share of around 0.1%. It provides web search results as well as expert advice and community forums.

AOL Search

AOL search engine

AOL Search is a search engine owned by Verizon Media and has a market share of around 0.1%. It provides web search results as well as news, finance, and entertainment content.


WolframAlpha search engine

WolframAlpha is a computational search engine that provides answers to factual questions by computing the answer from its knowledge base. It has a market share of around 0.1%.

The bottom line

Search engines are powerful tools that allow you to quickly find information on the internet. There are many types of search engines available, each with its own focus and methodology.

Historically, the hierarchy of search engines has evolved from basic crawlers to sophisticated AI-powered search engines.

AI is now being used to provide more accurate, relevant, and personalized search results, and is driving innovation in the search engine industry.

As a user, it's important to be aware of the different search engines available and compare and cross-check search results to get a more comprehensive view of the information available on the web.

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