What is Manual Action?
A manual action refers to a process undertaken by a human reviewer at Google to assess and potentially penalize a website for violating its webmaster quality guidelines.
Unlike algorithmic penalties - which are automatically imposed when a major change in Google algorithm takes place- manual actions are conducted by human reviewers to make judgments based on the provided guidelines.
If a website is found to be engaging in manipulative, spammy, and black-hat SEO practices that violate the guidelines, manual action may be taken, resulting in a penalty that can negatively impact the website's search rankings and visibility.
To gain a deeper understanding of these penalties, you can explore more information on this topic by reading our in-depth article on Google penalty.